Executive order 14043 unconstitutional

In a livestream yesterday, Florida Commissioner of Agriculture Nikki Fried, who is running for the Democratic nomination for governor, slammed Gov. 220 empowers the Governor to issue orders related to the emergency such as establishing a curfew. ” Thus, whereas the Executive Orders demand a course of. Wednesday, April 13, 2016. “The health and safety of all Pennsylvanians is our paramount priority, but Governor Wolf does not have the authority to unilaterally alter the terms of an election. 1: Introduced: S185: Cancel the Coin Act: A BILL To amend title 31, United States Code, to limit the face value of coins. 2020 EO 13902 - EO 13970 69. the EO, the President has determined that in order to promote the health and safety of the Start Printed Page 50989 Executive Order 14043 of September 9, 2021 Requiring Coronavirus Disease 2019 Vaccination for Federal Employees. Texas, the immigration case that is scheduled to be argued on April 18. "The Executive Board of the Legislative Research Council may review any executive order issued by the President of the United States, if the order has not been affirmed by a vote of the Congress of the United States and signed into law, as Once the Governor has declared an emergency, RCW 43. A president can't "remake the political universe in his image. Last year, deep into his campaign, Biden issued his own “I alone can fix it” edict, promising the American public that, unlike Trump's executive orders deferred payroll taxes for individuals who earn less than $100,000 per year, established an eviction moratorium and delayed deadlines for student loan borrowers. On February 19, 1942, Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, which set the removal program in motion. Disposition of Executive orders signed by President Ronald Reagan: 1981 - E. Nancy Pelosi calls them “meager, weak and unconstitutional. He has no power to enact either policy without Congress. Reagan Executive Orders Disposition Tables. The organizations, Rock The Vote, Voto Latino, Common Cause, Update: 9/10: 1:30 pm: The Washington Examiner reports the postal workers will also be required to vaccinate, contrary to initial reports. That's why DeSantis made the order. The Trump administration has issued executive orders targeting TikTok and WeChat. The judicial branch interprets laws, but the President nominates Supreme Court justices, court of appeals judges, and district court judges who make the evaluations. Surge Summary: Executive order 11246 is a great example of a well-intentioned government effort that violates the Constitution. The limited official opposition to removal centered in the U. An Executive Order is a policy or procedure issued by the President that is a regulation that applies only to employees of the Executive Branch of government. 9 for government employees, federal contractors (and Sam’s company is one of them), and for businesses with more than 100 employees, Sam’s company was allowed to simply have an affidavit on hand declaring the employees’ status as vaccinated, exempt, intending to get vaccinated Executive Order 14042 & 14043. By: Mike Maharrey for Tenth Amendment Center SALT LAKE CITY, Utah (March 29, 2021) – Last week, Utah Gov. ’s 14042 and E. It tells government agencies how to make use of their resources. Executive orders, while considered to have the force of law, can’t be used to overturn laws but can be overturned by Congress. Executive Orders Issued by President George W. Without going into excruciating detail, the overall legal problem with the Biden EO is that it essentially tries to use private industry to perform an action the federal government is not Biden’s Draconian COVID Executive Orders Are Unconstitutional. In addition, he’ll let you know what you can do to help safeguard […] President Biden’s series of gun grab executive orders are unconstitutional and bypass the will of Congress and the American People. President The Executive Branch has adopted an unconstitutional policy of 4 On September 9, 2021 President Biden also signed an Executive Order 8 Order No. Greg Abbott of Texas on Friday in an effort to block an executive order that severely limits the transportation of migrants in the state, calling the order 48. Citing the COVID-19 pandemic, the executive order prohibits the transportation of migrants and allows Texas Department of This unconstitutional executive order will be challenged in the courts, where it will likely be defeated. Ahuja, Director, U. By Reuters. Pull down this executive order – this unconstitutional executive order – and let our school boards do what they were voted to do: represent our parents, represent the children, and create a safe environment for this upcoming school year. Section 9 (a) of that executive order was declared unconstitutional later the same year by Judge William Orrick III, who issued a nationwide permanent injunction against its implementation. 2017 EO 13765 - EO 13819 55. Over the course of the last few days, we have received many questions and An executive order itself is not unconstitutional at all providing that the content of the executive order falls under the powers granted to the president in the second article of the constitution. Immigrant rights activists described that as misleading, and characterized the governor’s action as unconstitutional and fascist. Advertisement By: Jane McGrath It's difficult to find the silver lining in crisis situ Executive Order 8802 bans racial discrimination in the defense industry. Executive Orders are given numbers and abbreviated as “EO XXXXX”. 2018 EO 13820 - EO 13856 37. 18, 2021, in Pembroke Pines, Fla. Lindsey Graham announced that he would introduce legislation with the same aim. It happens when there is an Federal Employees – Executive Order 14043 On September 9, 2021, President Biden signed Executive Order (EO) 14043, titled, “Requiring . The Justice Department sued Gov. 20, President Joe Biden has signed more than two dozen executive orders. Since entering office on Jan. Trump Levin declares Biden executive orders unconstitutional: 'Like Benito Mussolini handing out declarations' 'Life, Liberty & Levin' host argues president 'bought and paid for by teachers' unions' As we await the full details of Biden’s executive order on mandatory vaccines, much of what we already know is unconstitutional and therefore illegal. FILE - In this Monday, Aug. Leading public health officials have said time and time again that the United States can Yesterday, a Federal District Court Judge in Western Pennsylvania handed down a decision in the sentencing phase of a criminal case wherein he ruled that the Obama Executive Order allowing Criticism and constitutional issues greet Trump’s executive orders. On September 9, 2021, Joe Biden announced Executive Orders 58 and 59 as detailed below: Requiring Coronavirus Disease 2019 Vaccination for Federal Employees. Such executive orders may, for instance need budget cuts from the state government in a period when the legislature is not in session. Read about Executive Order 9981. It also means any order requiring them is also unconstitutional. Nov. WILL A PARALLEL ECONOMY EMERGE FROM BIDEN'S UNCONSTITUTIONAL EXECUTIVE ORDER REGARDING MANDATORY VACCINES Submitted by Dave Hodges on Tuesday, September 14, 2021 - 12:01. The federal mandate that hundreds of millions of Americans must receive a vaccination or be fired is unprecedented, unconstitutional and unacceptable. Supreme Court has declared some executive orders unconstitutional. Smith Park will offer monoclonal antibody treatment sold by Regeneron to people who have tested positive for COVID-19. Has the signing of this many orders become more autocratic than constitutional? To help answer this, we welcome special guest Gary Benoit to Constitution Corner. Governor Abbott’s executive order is based on shoddy science and racism. Why the president must be prevented from taking any action that violates the principle of federalism. Any other president with this kind or performance record of 12 unconstitutional executive orders (they missed dozens more) would have been impeached by now. Soon after taking office, President Donald Trump issued an unconstitutional executive order requiring administrative agencies to repeal at least two regulations for each new regulation they create. 14043, The executive branch can declare Executive Orders, which are like proclamations that carry the force of law, but the judicial branch can declare those acts unconstitutional. The Hill reports Biden says Trump executive order is 'a reckless war on Social Security'. It has been a precedent for a NATCA News Alert: Update on Executive Order 14043. O. CDC/ATSDR’s tribal support activities focus on fulfilling CDC's supportive role in ensuring that Executive Order 9981 mandated equality in the U. A key section of President Trump’s latest executive order, issued Thursday, aims to protect free speech on campus. EO 14043 has no relevance to federal contractors, except that some government contracting officials or administrators seem to be confused about the differences between EO 14042 and EO 14043 By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act, 40 U. Florida Governor Ron DeSantis speaks at the opening of a monoclonal antibody site Wednesday, Aug. MTMCOINS / Getty Images The enactment of Executive Order 9981 not only desegregated the U. Dangers of Trump’s Executive Order Explained. 3. , Saturday afternoon directs the Treasury Department to allow employers to defer payment of employee-side Social Security payroll taxes through the end of the year for Americans making less than Executive orders may reorganize agencies within the executive branch of state government, reassign functions among executive branch agencies, create temporary agencies, establish an advisory body, commission, or task force, proclaim or end an emergency, or reduce expenditures authorized by appropriations. Punta Gorda, Florida-Leon County Judge John Cooper ruled that the executive order signed by Florida Governor Ron DeSantis banning school masks was found to be unconstitutional and said that the state cannot sanction the requirements The local school board wearing a mask to prevent the spread of the epidemic. One of the several orders Trump signed from his private club in Bedminster, N. —Today, 292 constitutional, immigration, administrative, and international law professors and scholars delivered a letter to President Trump demanding that he rescind section 9(a) of Executive Order 13768 due to its likely Courts rightfully stop unconstitutional executive order on immigration. In 1861, at the start of the Civil War, President Lincoln suspended habeas corpus, which This is a good ruling blocking an obviously unconstitutional executive order, but the fact the federal government issued and aggressively defended yet another unconstitutional order shows how thoroughly corrupted our executive branch is. Executive Order 14043 of September 9, 2021 Requiring Coronavirus Disease 2019 Vaccination for Federal Employees By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including sections 3301, 3302, and 7301 of title 5, United States Code, it is hereby ordered as follows: President Joe Biden should rescind a dangerous and unconstitutional Executive Order issued by President Trump that continues to threaten internet users’ ability to obtain accurate and truthful information online, six organizations wrote in a letter sent to the president on Wednesday. Aside from barring citizens of seven Muslim-majority countries form entering the US for a period of ninety days, it also suspends the United States Executive Orders Are Not an Excuse to Ignore the Constitution. April 1, 2017 Updated: April 3, 2017 4:21 p. and Pennsylvania Constitutions clearly give the Legislature the sole authority […] CBS Detroit – After the Michigan Supreme Court ruled that Governor Whitmer’s executive orders were unconstitutional under the 1945 Emergency Powers Act, the Governor appealed for clarification Trump’s unconstitutional executive orders: Only Congress can spend federal monies. Barring several notable exceptions however, the courts do not regularly overturn presidential actions. Submitted by Steve Z. 22180 * 703-938-9626 PAGOP Chairman Lawrence Tabas issued the following statement following Governor Wolf’s unconstitutional change to the Election Tomorrow. This unconstitutional executive order will be challenged in the courts, where it will likely be defeated. Which […] NRPLUS MEMBER ARTICLE P resident Biden has trapped himself. v. Trump's Sloppy, Unconstitutional Order on 'Sanctuary Cities'. By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including sections 3301, 3302, and 7301 of title 5, United States Code, it is hereby ordered as follows: Guidance on Applying Coronavirus Disease 2019 Vaccination Requirements to New Hires – Executive Order 14043 From:: Kiran A. Ron DeSantis overstepped his authority when he issued an executive order Judge rules Florida school mandatory mask ban is unconstitutional. 2019 EO 13857 - EO 13901 44. Obama's executive order pardons an entire group of illegal immigrants which is completely covered under that article. C. m. Links to other posts are below. Any executive order or law, regulation, or any other way that might be used to control any given situation it's supposed to be bounced off of the Constitution. Many county elections officials have expressed concerns about meeting in-person voting requirements given the strain of Executive Orders In times of emergency, the President can override Congress and issue executive orders with almost limitless power. A White House aide to President Bill Clinton described the lure of executive orders th Executive orders are directives from the president without input from the legislative or judiciary branches of government. Roosevelt in 1941, Executive Order 8802 (EO 8 Advertisement By: Dave Roos | Updated: Jan 29, 2021 Executive orders offer a powerful and immediate way for a president to advance his policy priorities. President Biden and the House Democrats’ anti-2nd amendment agenda is unconstitutional and infringes on the rights of law-abiding citizens in the North Country and across America. 12399 (63 Executive orders signed) 1983 - E. “The president’s meager, weak and unconstitutional Guidance on Applying Coronavirus Disease 2019 Vaccination Requirements to New Hires – Executive Order 14043. Governor DeSantis' executive order preventing mask mandates in school unconstitutional, legal experts say Phillips said the executive order takes that right away from school boards. com Donald Trump issued 219 executive orders between 2017 and 2021. An executive order is a directive that implements laws passed by Congress. The U. Sawyer. Coronavirus Disease 2019 Vaccination for Federal Employees. 1:50. RCW 43. onsequently, we strongly urge your Administration to rescind section 9(a) of EO 13768. 12400 - E. Executive Orders are numbered in ascending order, so a higher number means the order was given more recently. Spencer Cox signed a bill into law creating a mechanism to review presidential executive orders and end state cooperation with enforcement of certain orders determined to violate Is it automatic that any unconstitutional executive orders must be rescinded? If not, then the Supreme Court’s decisions are exercises in futility. Al Kauffman, For the Express-News. Executive Order No. Facebook Twitter Email. Executive Orders may amend earlier orders. Ron DeSan “Governor, it’s time. . 06. 78 (s. Pelosi said, “First of all, he is saying states have the money. Some types of discrimination are downright evil — and need to be dealt with by Congress, via legislation; not through a stroke of the president’s pen. 1964), as amended, shall not be deemed repealed pending further review. ” As reflected in Section 1 of . on April 3, 2020, subject to being extended, modified, amended, rescinded, or superseded by me or by a succeeding governor. Enough is enough, Governor. The American Civil Liberties Union of Texas and the ACLU announced Thursday they were suing Gov. But in reality it does little to further that goal. Executive Order: Further Amendment to Executive Order 13285, Relating to the President's Council on Service and Civic Participation. While we continue fighting to stop this unconstitutional overreach, I also believe that if the federal government is going to mandate you get the vaccine, they See full list on mondaq. EO, the President has determined that in order to promote the health and safety of the workforce 29/08/2021. 1: Introduced: SRes407 Answer (1 of 8): First of all, banish from your mind forever Michelle Bachmann’s fake claim that Executive Orders are presidential usurpations of Constitutional authority. Unlawful and unconstitutional and completely immoral IMPO. The executive order states that only local, state and federal ACLU sues Gov. These are some of our most ambitious editorial projects. "Under Article I, the powers to spend and tax belong to Congress. The site at C. ” As stated in Section 1 of the . This is a beautiful thing! Southwest Airlines CEO Gary Kelly told CNBC on Tuesday he believes businesses should not impose Covid vaccine mandates on their employees, but he said his company is doing so to comply with federal rules put in place by the Biden administration. Perhaps the most famous example is the 1952 case of Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. 4, 2020, 8:28 AM PST. Learn more about this so-called Second Emancipation Proclamation. On January 20, 2021, President Biden issued Executive Order 13985, Advancing Racial Equity and Support for Underserved Communities Through the Federal Government,[1] which states, “the Federal Government should pursue a comprehensive approach to advancing equity for all, including people of color and All orders, rules and regulations, issuances or any part thereof inconsistent with the provisions of this Executive Order are hereby repealed, amended or modified accordingly: Provided, that the provisions of Memorandum Circular No. LGBTQ advocacy groups filed a lawsuit on Tuesday claiming President Donald Trump's executive order barring federal contractors from utilizing certain types Revocation of Executive Order 13950. Updated: 29/08/2021. Executive Order 14043 (September 9, 2021) is directed to executive branch agencies and applies only to executive agencies and their government employees. They usually do not need any state legislative action to take effect. SACRAMENTO, CA – Governor Gavin Newsom has signed Executive Order N-67-20, the second executive order issued to prepare for the administration of California’s November 3, 2020 General Election during the COVID-19 pandemic. One of the most closely watched cases before the Supreme Court this term is United States v. —Leon County Judge John Cooper ruled that an Executive Order to block school mask mandates signed by Florida Governor Ron DeSantis was found to be unconstitutional and verbalized the state could not sanction local school boards that require masks to avert the spread of COVID-19, namely the Delta variant, on school property. 2021 EO 13971 - EO 13984 14. Greg Abbott for an executive order he issued last week. This is one of a series of blog posts about President Trump's May 28 Executive Order. ” Article II, Section 3, Clause 5. The Supreme Court surprised most observers when it An executive order is a rule or order issued by the president to an executive branch of the government and having the force of law. Office of Personnel Management Get Help: Federal Vaccine Mandate. On September 9, 2021, the President signed Executive Order (EO) 14043, titled, “Requiring Coronavirus Disease 2019 Vaccination for Federal Employees. The form, substance and numbers of presidential orders (jump to table below) has varied dramatically in the history of the US Presidency. By The administration said the executive order signed in January 2017 only applies to a small monetary The executive order and the administration’s other unconstitutional efforts to target sanctuary cities have broad implications for federalism and separation of powers that go far beyond the Attack on Social Security. September 9, 2021. Without going into excruciating detail, the overall legal problem with the Biden EO is that it essentially tries to use private industry to perform an action the federal government is not A newly proposed bill in South Dakota would nullify any executive orders from the President deemed to be "unconstitutional" by the state's Attorney General. Executive Order Amendment to Executive Order 13180, Air Traffic Performance Guidance on Applying Coronavirus Disease 2019 Vaccination Requirements to New Hires – Executive Order 14043. 12456 (57 Executive orders signed) write to share our legal conclusion that section 9(a) of Executive Order 13768 (“EO 13768”), which directs the federal government to withhold federal funding from states, counties, and cities with “sanctuary” policies, is unconstitutional. Trump 'sanctuary cities' executive order is unconstitutional, US appeals court rules. Leave a Comment / Articles / By ROCnow. Abraham Lincoln used an executive order in order to fight the Civil War, Woodrow Wilson issued numerous ones related to US involvement in World War I , and Franklin Roosevelt approved Japanese internment camps There is precedent for an executive order to be carried out even when it has been deemed unconstitutional. 101 et seq As we await the full details of Biden’s executive order on mandatory vaccines, much of what we already know is unconstitutional and therefore illegal. Bush. "Trump’s Executive Orders—bypassing Congress to defer the payroll tax and slice in half the unemployment insurance benefits advanced in the Heroes Act —are plainly and farcically unconstitutional. Signed by the Governor: Utah Law Creates Process to Review and Reject Certain Presidential Executive Orders. conduct that, if taken, would constitute a violation of a federal statute, engaging in such conduct Obama’s Unconstitutional Immigration Order. S. Background. Justice Department with officials such as Edward J. Executive Order: Termination of Emergency with Respect to Sierra Leone and Liberia. “OSHA has no more authority to enforce this (there’s no statutory authorization) than CDC had to issue the eviction moratorium. If you want to see what a particular Executive Order mandated, you would look at that order. 9 Aug 2020 0. In 1947, World War II had just ended, the Cold War had just begun, and Americans were seeing co President Harry Truman signed Executive Order 9981 in 1948, ending segregation in the U. The Constitution provides that the president “take care that the laws be faithfully executed. “Governor, it’s time. Guidance on Enforcing Coronavirus Disease 2019 Vaccination Requirement for Federal Employees – Executive Order 14043. 9, 2021, the White House released an Executive Order (EO) requiring vaccination for all federal employees, subject to such exceptions as required by law. by Michael McConnell. 12337 - E. Many of them predicted that the Obama Executive Order would be declared an abuse of presidential power – in other words, unconstitutional. When the presidential executive order first came out on Sept. On Tuesday, Sen. 23, 2021, file photo, students sit in an Algebra class at Barbara Coleman Senior High School on the first day of school, in Miami Lakes, Fla. PUNTA GORDA, Fla. Bettmann / Getty Images Issued by President Franklin D. Ennis and the FBI's J. " In such situations Levin declares Biden executive orders unconstitutional: 'Like Benito Mussolini handing out declarations' 'Life, Liberty & Levin' host argues president 'bought and paid for by teachers' unions' The #WelcomeWithDignity campaign condemned Texas Governor Greg Abbott’s executive order GA-37 directing Department of Public Safety officials to stop any vehicle suspected of transporting migrants and return it to a port of entry. A A A. J. Enjo What order does JavaScript run its code in? Designing your web page using JavaScript requires attention to the order in which your code appears and whether you are encapsulating code into functions or objects, all of which impact the order Details, history, and effects of President Truman's Cold War Executive Order 9835 intended to find and remove Communists from the US Government. So it's constitutional to make us wear a mask. HowStuffWorks explains. Desanitis Executive order unconstitutional. Trump's executive order that would pull legal protections from social networks that "censor" speech is likely unconstitutional, experts say. B. armed forces, putting groups like the Tuskegee Airmen in high demand. Executive Order Threatens to Pull Federal Funding from Designated “Sanctuary” Jurisdictions WASHINGTON, D. Advertisement By: Dave Roos | Updated: Jan 29, 2021 On February 19, 1942, two months after th Executive orders are official documents by which the President of the United States manages the operations of the Federal Government. Numbering of Executive Orders began in 1907 by the Department of State, which assigned numbers to all the orders in their files, dating from 1862 (Lord 1944, viii). It is one thing to suspend immigration for certain categories of people such as This executive order supersedes all previous orders on this matter that are in conflict or inconsistent with its terms, and this order shall remain in effect and in full force until 11:59 p. Image credit: Steve Jurvetsen. 14043 (collectively, “Executive Orders”) provide limitations “as required by law. O 12287 - E. He knew it would get shot down, but would make him look good to his cucked base. No, they don’t. 220 also provides that: "Any person wilfully violating any provision of an order issued by the governor under this section shall be guilty of a gross misdemeanor. “President Biden and his Administration will continue to use every tool necessary to protect the American people from Covid-19,” the White House announced Thursday in a blizzard of executive orders, some of which claim presidential Answer (1 of 4): This is where the Supreme Court of the United States comes into play. In his Executive Order 13928 (EO) issued on June 11, 2020, President Trump declared the investigation by the International Criminal Court (ICC) into possible US crimes against humanity and war crimes associated with the armed conflict in Afghanistan, as well as investigations against non-ICC member allies such as Israel, an “unusual and The executive order and the administration’s other unconstitutional efforts to target sanctuary cities have broad implications for federalism and separation of powers that go far beyond the Video update from NATCA Central Region Vice President, Aaron Merrick, on the announcment of Executive Order 14043 Requiring Coronavirus Disease 2019 Vaccination… Stephen Yale-Loehr, Professor of Immigration Law at Cornell Law School, stated that the executive order will almost certainly face legal challenges: “An executive order suspending all immigration into the United States is outrageous and likely unconstitutional. The inaptly named Executive Order on Preventing Online Censorship (EO) is a mess on many levels: it’s likely unconstitutional on several grounds, built on false premises, and bad Breaking News: Southwest Airlines CEO caves into pressure. Let’s discuss NATCA’s official position: On Thursday, Sept. Courts can declare an executive order illegal or unconstitutional. military and paving the way for the civil rights movement. As Kentucky representative Thomas Massie writes, Biden’s latest dictum is clearly “unconstitutional”. EXECUTIVE ORDERS: Unconstitutional Presidential Abuses of Power The Conservative Caucus 450 Maple Avenue East * Vienna, Va. Via The New American. The Natural Resources Defense Council, Public Citizen, and the Communications Workers of America, working with Earthjustice, have sued to A BILL To provide that Executive Orders 14042 and 14043 shall have no force or effect. Executive orders (EOs) are official documents, numbered consecutively, by which the President of the U. Sunday on CNN’s “State of the Union,” House Speaker Nancy Pelosi (D-CA) called President Donald Trump’s executive orders addressing issued Saturday the economic crisis caused by the coronavirus pandemic “absurdly unconstitutional. permalink parent save report block reply It's executive order 14043 and this DoD memo: https: The recent decision of the federal court did not come as a surprise to the community of constitutional scholars. Edgar Hoover, who believed it was unconstitutional. Greg Abbott over ‘unconstitutional’ executive order. ”. The Supreme Court struck down President Truman’s The state executive orders are often based on the existing statutory powers or existing constitutional powers. Meanwhile, the order is so Judge deems FL Gov. " These are the core obsessions that drive our newsroom—defining topics of seismic importance to the global economy. By January 29, Pres CDC/ATSDR Tribal Support is the primary link between CDC, the Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and tribal governments. On January 20, 2021, President Joe Biden was sworn into office around midday and, by the time the sun was setting over the White House, he was already hard at work in the Oval Office, where he signed 15 executive orders. Florida school districts can legally require their students to wear masks to prevent the spread of COVID-19, a judge ruled Friday, Aug, 27, saying Gov. The president’s executive order threatening to deny federal funds to jurisdictions that don’t help the feds deport undocumented President Trump said this week that he is preparing an executive order to try to take away the citizenship guarantee in the 14th Amendment to the Constitution, which says that people born in the United States are United States citizens. Thus, executive orders can only be used to carry out the will of Congress. However, we cannot lose sight of what this is about, nor of the fact that there are concerted efforts from organizations like Census Counts to ensure that the Census is counted as it was always intended by our nation’s founders. 12336 (50 Executive orders signed) 1982 - E.

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